Lesson 13: Prefixes

Read the diagram below out loud with your tutor.



Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again.

  • Kevin: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There are more impolite people than polite people.
  • Dorothy: In my opinion, some people are unkind and impolite, but most people are pleasant and respectful.
  • Kevin: That’s an interesting view. Sometimes I meet unfriendly, impolite people who make me disagree with that idea.
  • Dorothy: Oh, that’s a shame. It’s unfair to let a few bad eggs to ruin your impression of everyone else!




Using prefixes


Read the diagram below out loud with your tutor.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 12.08.22.png



Here’s a more complete list of prefixes. Review them out loud with your tutor. Try to come up with more examples of prefixed words as you go along.

prefix meaning examples
anti- against/opposed to anti-government, anti-racist, anti-war
auto- self autobiography, automobile
de- reverse or change de-classify, decontaminate, demotivate
dis- reverse or remove disagree, displeasure, disqualify
down- reduce or lower downgrade, downhearted
extra- beyond extraordinary, extraterrestrial
hyper- extreme hyperactive, hypertension
il-, im-, in-, ir- not illegal, impossible, insecure, irregular
inter- between interactive, international
mega- very big, important megabyte, mega-deal, megaton
mid- middle midday, midnight, mid-October
mis- incorrectly, badly misaligned, mislead, misspelled
non- not non-payment, non-smoking
over- too much overcook, overcharge, overrate
out- go beyond outdo, out-perform, outrun
post- after post-election, post-war
pre- before prehistoric, pre-war
pro- in favor of pro-communist, pro-democracy
re- again reconsider, redo, rewrite
semi- half semicircle, semi-retired
sub- under, below submarine, sub-Saharan
super- above, beyond super-hero, supermodel
tele- at a distance television, telepathic
trans- across transatlantic, transfer
ultra- extremely ultra-compact, ultrasound
un- remove, reverse, not undo, unpack, unhappy
under- less than, beneath undercook, underestimate
up- make or move higher upgrade, uphill




Identify the 5 words with prefixes in the following paragraph.

I need to buy a new bicycle because my current one constantly needs repairs. The other day, I saw that the local bike shop is having a presale on bikes. They are advertising 10% off on the new models coming out soon. I went inside to ask the salesperson if the ad misrepresented the discount. She said it was true and that I could prepay and pick the bike up at a later date. Unfortunately, I was short on cash at the time, but the sale will continue until next week.

(1) bicycle

(2) _____________

(3) _____________

(4) _____________

(5) _____________



Fill the blanks in with one of the following words: undercooked, uphill, outperform, non-stop, multicultural

  • After my car accident, I had an uphill battle to a full recovery.
  • A lot of big cities are (6) _________________ because more people are moving from different countries.
  • You need to (7) ______________ your previous IELTS exam if you want to improve your chance of success.
  • It has been raining (8) _______________ for the past three days.
  • Eating (9) _____________ meat could cause food poisoning.




Write a sentence using the word with a prefix.

  • improper –  It’s improper to wear shorts and a t-shirt for a job interview.
  • midnight – ________________________________________________.
  • reconsider – _______________________________________________.
  • unpack – __________________________________________________.
  • discourage – _______________________________________________.



Discussion Questions

  1. Who is your favorite superhero? What is his/her superpower?
  2. What’s worse: impolite or impractical people? Why?
  3. Do you prefer understated fashion or overstated fashion? Why?




(Sources: 1. http://www.treetopdisplays.co.uk/writing_and_grammar1.php, 2. http://www.slideshare.net/met4457/prefixes-and-suffixes-macu. 3. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/word-formation/prefixes, 4. http://englishgrammarviii.blogspot.com/2015/07/prefixes.html)


Answer Key:

(1) bicycle

(2) presale

(3) misrepresented

(4) prepay

(5) Unfortunately

(6) multi-cultural

(7) outperform

(8) non-stop

(9) undercooked

Lesson 12: Suffixes

Read the diagram below out loud with your tutor.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.47.16.png


Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again! (Note: The bolded words are all examples of suffixes.)

  • Kevin: Dorothy, you have a beautiful dog. Does he provide protection for your family as well?
  • Dorothy: Yes, we feel safer with him around. He’s also an excitable and playful dog, to say the least. Sometimes he can be a handful.
  • Kevin: I’m sure he can be a distraction when you are trying to work from home.
  • Dorothy: He wants my attention all the time. At times, I want to medicate him to calm him down, but I wouldn’t really do that to him.


Read the new skills below out loud with your tutor.

Inflectional suffixes

Inflectional suffixes do not change the meaning of the original word. The suffix is added simply to match the plural, the tense, or etc. Look at these examples:

suffix grammatical change original word suffixed word
-s plural dog dogs
-en plural (irregular) ox oxen
-s 3rd person singular present like he likes
-ed past tense

past participle

work he worked

he has worked

-en past participle (irregular) eat he has eaten
-ing continuous/progressive sleep he is sleeping
-er comparative big bigger
-est superlative big the biggest

Derivational suffixes

With derivational suffixes, the new word is “derived” from the original word. The new word now has a different meaning. There are several hundred derivational suffixes. Here are some of the more common ones:

suffix making example

original word


suffixed word

-ation nouns explore




-sion persuade




-er teach teacher
-cian music musician
-ess god goddess
-ness sad sadness
-al arrive arrival
-ary diction dictionary
-ment treat treatment
-y jealous




-al adjectives accident accidental
-ary imagine imaginary
-able tax taxable
-ly brother brotherly
-y ease easy
-ful sorrow




-ly adverbs helpful helpfully
-ize verbs terror




-ate hyphen hyphenate

Note: The following website provides more suffixes, their meanings, and examples: https://www.learnthat.org/pages/view/suffix.html


Identify the words ending in a suffix in the following paragraph. (1)

Sunset is the time of day when our sky meets the outer space solar winds. There are blue, pink, and purple swirls, spinning and twisting, like clouds of balloons caught in a blender. The sun moves slowly to hide behind the line of the horizon, while the moon races to take its place in prominence atop the night sky. People slow to a crawl, entranced, fully forgetting the deeds that still must be done. There is a coolness and calmness when the sun does set.

Fill the blanks in with one of the following words: works, teacher, sadness, terrorize, taxable

  • A cashier works with a machine that adds and subtracts numbers.
  • People who (2) _________________ others need to be put in prison for their crimes.
  • Everyone in the USA must report all (3) ________________ income at the end of the year.
  • The (4) _________________ fell upon the losing football team towards the end of the match.
  • A (5) _____________ has to know how to be compassionate.


Write a sentence using the word.

  • creative –  A creative person finds inspiration in the work they do.
  • private – __________________________________________________.
  • forgetful – _________________________________________________.
  • arrival – ___________________________________________________.
  • sadly – ____________________________________________________.

Discussion Questions (try to use some suffixes you just learned)

  1. Talk about a time you hesitated in making a decision. Did the hesitation help you or hurt you?
  2. What gets you excited? Do you consider yourself an excitable person?
  3. When was the last time someone persuaded you into doing something? Did the persuasion help you or hurt you?
  4. What is one way you are different from most people? How do you behave or think differently?
  5. When was the last time you helped somebody? Do you consider yourself a helpful person?

(Image source: 1. http://www.classroomfreebiestoo.com/2012/10/free-mini-prefix-and-suffix-posters.html, 2. https://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/suffixes.htm, 3. https://www.pinterest.com/jul7788/adjectives-and-adverbs/, 4. http://e-ducativa.catedu.es/44700165/aula/archivos/repositorio//1750/1943/html/SUFFIXES.png, 5. http://e-ducativa.catedu.es/44700165/aula/archivos/repositorio/1750/1951/html/ADJECTIVE_SUFFIXES.png, 6. http://patternbasedwriting.com/elementary_writing_success/paragraph-examples/)

Answer Key:

(1) outer / winds / swirls / spinning / twisting / clouds / balloons / blender / moves / slowly / races / entranced / fully / forgetting / deeds / done / coolness / calmness / does

(2) terrorize

(3) taxable

(4) sadness

(5) teacher

Lesson 11: The Job Interview in English

Recruiter checking the candidate during job interviewDIALOGUE

Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again!

  • Kevin: Dorothy, I have an important interview on Tuesday in English. I’m preparing for it now, despite being really nervous.
  • Dorothy: I think it’s natural to be nervous. My advice is to give short and sweet answers to the interviewer’s questions. You should be direct and to the point.
  • Kevin: Thank you! That’s some great advice. What about industry terms? Should I know some?
  • Dorothy: For sure! If you don’t know some industry terms, the interviewer may think you don’t have enough experience for the job. In addition, I suggest that you ask open-ended questions at the end of the interview.
  • Kevin: Thanks for all your advice and suggestions. I’m going to nail it!





Read the common interview questions below out loud with your tutor.  Then spend 1-2 minutes answering each question. Your tutor will give you corrections and feedback on your answers.

5 common interview questions

  1. Tell me about yourself. Keep your personal life such as family and hobbies out of your answer. The interviewer wants to hear a summary of where you are in your career, especially your most recent job. You should also talk about your work skills that you are good at.
  2. Why are you thinking about leaving your job or why did you leave your last job? Don’t complain about your manager or co-workers. Be positive! You can say that you are looking for a position with more responsibilities, your current company is downsizing or is financially unstable, or other reasons that are true.
  3. Why would you excel at this job? This is your chance to brag a little. Tell the interviewer about your skills and experience that are related to the position you are interviewing for. Example: I am the best person for the position because …………….
  4. What do you know about our company? Prior to the interview, you should research the company. If you don’t know anything about the company, they may think you aren’t interested in the job. Here are some examples of things to know:
    1. What are some of the products or services the company offers?

    2. Have they been in the news lately?

    3. What is the history of the company?

    4. What makes them different from its competitors?

  5. What questions do you have for me? This is normally the last question the interviewer will ask. Be prepared with some questions!
    • Avoid questions about salary and benefits, especially if it’s the first interview.
    • Ask about the culture of the company or to clarify the position further.

    • Ask about the next steps in the hiring process and about the timeline to hear back from them.

    • Ask open-ended questions where the interviewer has to think and answer in his/her own words. Avoid yes and no questions.

Common interview mistakes

Read the diagram below out loud with your tutor. 

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.27.36.png

Discussion question: Are you guilty of any of these mistakes? Share an anecdote with your tutor.




Go over the vocabulary and expressions below with your tutor. Try using each in a sentence about your own life.

job seeker 📘
interviewee 📘
interviewer 📘
management style 📘
industry terms or jargon 📘
open-ended 📘
trick question 📘
achievement 📘
nail it 📘
short and sweet 📘
strength 📘
weakness 📘
problem solver 📘
career ladder 📘
business reference 📘
fired 📘
punctual 📘
certificate 📘
promotion 📘
downsizing 📘





Using the diagram above about common interview mistakes, answer true or false (T or F). In addition, indicate which number the sentence is talking about.

  • No matter what, you can talk a lot to get your point across. False – number 5 (talking too much)
  • You should use your mobile phone to time yourself when answering question. (1) __________________________
  • You should be punctual for your interview. (2) ___________________
  • Don’t worry if you don’t know a lot about the employer. (3) ______________
  • You should never talk negatively about former bosses and colleagues. (4) ___________________




Pick a word from the vocabulary list above that best defines the meaning of the sentence.

  • When a company releases employees because they want to cut the payroll. downsizing
  • When an interviewer has to answer a question that is not simply a yes or no answer. (5) _________________
  • The person who is being interviewed. (6) __________________
  • A document stating a person has completed an educational course. (7) _____________
  • When your boss tells you that you are no longer working for the company. (8) _____________




Write a sentence using the vocabulary.

  • business reference –  I was asked to provide three business references prior to the interview.
  • trick question – ____________________________________________.
  • nail it – ___________________________________________________.
  • promotion – _______________________________________________.
  • management style – _________________________________________.



If you have remaining time, practice answering more interview questions with your tutor here: https://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/100-potential-interview-questions




(Image source: http://honorigarciaenglish.blogspot.com/2015/08/a-job-interview-tips-and-vocabulary.html)


Answer Key:

(1) False – number 6 (using your phone)

(2) True – number 9 (don’t be too late or too early)

(3) False – number 2 (not researching enough)

(4) True – number 1 (don’t speak poorly of previous employers)

(5) open-ended

(6) interviewee

(7) certificate

(8) fired

Lesson 10: Money Idioms

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.02.18.png


Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again!

  • Kevin: I want to take you out for your birthday dinner, but I will foot the bill.
  • Dorothy: That’s sweet of you! You must have money to burn.
  • Kevin: I made a killing in the stock market the other day so I have some extra money.
  • Dorothy: Wow! You better not spend it all. You should save some for a rainy day.





Using idioms about money

Read the idioms below out loud with your tutor. Try using each idiom in a sentence about your own life.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.04.19.png



money talks Money gives one power and influence to help get things done or get one’s own way.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.06.49.png


nest egg money that has been saved up

Example: Everyone needs a nest egg for retirement.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.07.12.png



money doesn’t grow on trees – it’s not easy to get money


  • Son: Dad, can you buy me a nice car for my 18th birthday?
  • Dad: Son, I can’t afford to buy you a nice car. Money doesn’t grow on trees.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.09.20.png



saving for a rainy day to keep something, especially money, for a time in the future when it might be needed

Example: One never knows when you will need money. You better be saving for a rainy day.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.09.00.png




cost an arm and a leg – something that is extremely expensive

Example: That Porsche cost me an arm and a leg!

Screenshot 2017-01-06 11.10.36.png







Make a sentence using the idiom about money.

  • nest egg We need to build a nest egg so we have money for vacation next year.
  • saving for a rainy day _____________________________________________.
  • to foot the bill _____________________________________________.
  • money doesn’t grow on trees _______________________________________.
  • money to burn __________________________________________________.
  • money talks__________________________________________________.
  • cash cow ____________________________________________________.
  • to make a killing _______________________________________________.
  • to cut your losses ________________________________________________.
  • cost an arm and a leg _____________________________________________.




Discussion Questions

  1. What is your personal philosophy regarding saving money? Are you more of a saver or a spender?
  2. Who has the best money habits in your family? Why?
  3. Talk about a time you regretted not purchasing something.
  4. What is the best purchase you’ve made recently? Why was it the best purchase?
  5. How would you describe the spending patterns in your country? How does it differ with other countries?






(Image Source: 1. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/116741815318497552/, 2. http://thai.langhub.com/th-en/learn-english-blog/480-cost-an-arm-and-a-leg)

Lesson 9: Using Modal Verbs

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.27.34.png


Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again!

  • Kevin: I could play the piano really well when I was younger, but since I haven’t played it in years, I’m rusty.
  • Dorothy: You should start practicing again! If you did, would you regain your ability quickly?
  • Kevin: I think I would, but it would take some time. I shouldn’t have stopped taking lessons. I could have been a pro by now!
  • Dorothy: Well, there’s no use thinking about what could have been. You must seize the moment and get started now!


Learning the main modal verbs

Read the diagram below out loud with your tutor. These are the main modal verbs.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.29.51.png

Using the main modal verbs

Read the diagrams below out loud with your tutor. It goes over different ways to use each of the main modal verbs. Come up with your own example sentence for each main modal as you go over them.

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.31.23.png

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.33.16.png

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.33.34.png

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.33.56.png

Screenshot 2017-01-06 10.34.14.png



Fill in the blank with the correct modal verb. There may be more multiple correct answers.

  • Could you lend me a pen, please? I forgot mine at home. (polite request)
  • He (1) ___________ go to the party because he’s not feeling well.
  • It (2) __________ be great if you could drop me off at the library.
  • Your brother needs help with his English so you (3) __________ help him.
  • There are lots of dark clouds in the sky. I think it (4)________ rain. (high probability)

Make a sentence using the modal verb.

  • might According to the weather forecast, it might snow tonight. (small chance)
  • will  ______________________________________________________.
  • wouldn’t __________________________________________________.
  • should ___________________________________________________.
  • must  _____________________________________________________.

Make a sentence using the modal verb.

  • mustn’t You mustn’t walk on the floor with your dirty shoes.
  • may  _____________________________________________________.
  • can  ______________________________________________________.
  • shall _____________________________________________________.
  • would ____________________________________________________.

Discussion Questions

  1. If a tourist were to visit your hometown, what should he do and see?
  2. If everyone in the world spoke the same language, do you think the world would be a better place? What would be some pros and some cons?
  3. What advice would you give to your younger self?
  4. What are some things you could do when you were younger but no longer can? What changed?
  5. What are some things that you think may happen in the coming year?

(Image Source: 1. https://ankaralegalenglish.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/modal-verbs.jpg, 2. http://viandregrammar.blogspot.com/2013_10_01_archive.html, 3. https://www.tes.com/lessons/UpOAnsAbEb2gmQ/modal-verbs)

Answer Key:

(1) can’t / won’t / mustn’t / shouldn’t / may not

(2) would

(3) could / should / must / can

(4) may

Lesson 8: Opinions

Screenshot 2017-01-05 19.22.14.png


Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again!

  • Kevin: Are you an opinionated person?
  • Dorothy: Personally speaking, I like to express my opinion. However, I don’t like to fight over an issue or topic. Furthermore, I wish people would understand that everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion.
  • Kevin: I couldn’t agree more. Too many people get uptight when expressing their point of view.
  • Dorothy: Even though people have different opinions, some people need to step back and look at both sides of the story.




Using coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

Read this diagram out loud with your tutor. 

Screenshot 2017-01-05 19.24.35.png


  • Even though he is opinionated, he is entitled to his own opinion.
  • I’m in favor of his opinion, yet I don’t agree with everything he said.
  • Since a majority of the people think it’s a worthwhile cause, we will not oppose it.
  • I agree with you entirely, because you provided enough pros to convince me.
  • I’m sorry to disagree with you, but your argument is unfair.
  • [come up with your own sentence using a coordinating conjunction]
  • [come up with your own sentence using a subordinating conjunction]


How to express opinions.

Read this diagram out loud with your tutor. Then role-play a discussion where you and your tutor debate whether cats or dogs are the best pet. Use as many of the below expressions as possible.Screenshot 2017-01-05 19.25.38.png

Note: There are other phrases and sentences to express opinions. These are just some examples.





Go over the vocabulary and expressions below with your tutor. Try using each in a sentence.

entitled 📘
pro 📘
con 📘
in favor of 📘
unfair 📘
argument 📘
opinionated 📘
oppose 📘
support 📘
worthwhile 📘





Write a sentence using the coordinating or subordinating conjunction.

  • unless You can’t sit in the exit row of a plane, unless you are physically capable of opening the door.
  • so  ______________________________________________________.
  • after _____________________________________________________.
  • and ______________________________________________________.
  • because __________________________________________________.




Make a sentence using the phrase or sentence given and the vocabulary above.

  • It is widely believed that most politicians support the people they serve but I disagree.
  • I’d suggest that ____________________________________________.
  • It is considered ____________________________________________.
  • That’s a good point _________________________________________.
  • Yes, but don’t you think _____________________________________.


Fill in the blank with a word in the vocabulary list above that completes the sentence the best. You may have to use the plural form and it’s possible that more than one word can be used.

  • She thinks she’s entitled to the job, even though she doesn’t have the experience.
  • I’m (1) ________________ going to the Fiji Islands for vacation next year.
  • In my humble opinion, the (2) ____________ outweigh the (3)____________.
  • It’s (4) __________________ to further your education, because it only helps.
  • On the contrary, I think it’s (5) ___________ that everyone has to pay the same amount of taxes.




Make an opinion using the opinion type. Use the vocabulary from the list above and a conjunction.

  • to disagree: I don’t agree with you, because he didn’t backup his argument with facts.
  • to agree: __________________________________________________.
  • general point of view: _______________________________________.
  • personal point of view: ______________________________________.
  • to disagree: _______________________________________________.




  • Role-play a debate with your tutor. Each of you takes the position that the other’s country is better than yours.
  • Role-play a debate with your tutor. Each of you takes the position that the other’s native language is harder to learn than yours.




(Image source: 1. http://jeope.blogspot.com/2008/11/166-opinions-are-like-belly-buttons.html, 2. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/541980136387260884/)


Answer Key:

(1) in favor of

(2) pros (or cons)

(3) cons (or pros, if cons are used in #2)

(4) worthwhile

(5) unfair

Lesson 7: Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing

Screenshot 2017-01-05 16.09.16.png


Practice by reading the dialogue with your tutor. After you are done, switch roles and do it again!

  • Kevin: The movie we saw last night was boring. I almost fell asleep within the first fifteen minutes.
  • Dorothy: I’m sorry. I was worried that you were not going to like it.
  • Kevin: It’s ok. Next time, let’s decide together which movie to watch.
  • Dorothy: Sometimes I get overwhelmed by the choices, and I pick a bad movie.




Using adjectives that end in -ed and -ing.

Read the diagram below out loud with your tutor. Can you come up with some example sentences of each?

Screenshot 2017-01-05 16.12.53.png




Go over the vocabulary and expressions below with your tutor. Then practice making sentences with each word.

disgusted 📘 disgusting 📘
shocked 📘 shocking 📘
soothed 📘 soothing 📘
worried 📘 worrying 📘
overwhelmed 📘 overwhelming 📘
insulted 📘 insulting 📘
confused 📘 confusing 📘
inspired 📘 inspiring 📘
bored 📘 boring 📘
embarrassed 📘 embarrassing 📘

Practice: Tell your tutor about a time you felt embarrassed.





Make a sentence using the -ed or -ing adjective.

  • embarrassed  The student was embarrassed because he was the only one who forgot to do his homework.
  • disgusted  ________________________________________________.
  • inspiring __________________________________________________.
  • confused _________________________________________________.
  • shocking _________________________________________________.




Fill in the blank with the correct word ending in -ing or -ed.

  • shock
    • It’s shocking to hear that the world is full of corruption.
  • inspire
    • He is (1) _______________ by his brother’s success in life.
  • soothe
    • The soft tranquil music is (2) ______________ to my ears.
  • confuse
    • His daughter said she was totally (3) ______________ about questions  at the job interview.
  • disgust
    • A lot of the streets in big cities are (4) ______________ because people don’t know how to use the trash bins.



Using the vocabulary list above, fill in the blank with the correct “ed” or “ing” word.

  • The TV program about psychology was so boring, I switched channels.
  • I’m (5) ________________ with too much homework and tests to study for.
  • The lady was (6) ________________ by the foul language used by the man talking to her.
  • The increase in violent crimes is (7) _________________.
  • Relationships can be (8) _________________ because sometimes people don’t communicate well.




Is the word ending in “ed” or “ing” an adjective or verb?

  • Am I boring you with my opinion about politics?  verb
  • She shocked everyone with the news about her pregnancy.  (9) _______
  • The mall is overwhelming on Saturdays because too many people are shopping. (10) _______
  • All of us are inspired by her countless acts of kindness. (11) _______
  • I’m embarrassing myself right now with my foolishness. (12) _______



Discussion Questions

  • Tell your tutor about a time you felt overwhelmed. What happened?
  • Tell your tutor about a time you felt insulted. What happened?
  • Who is the most inspiring person in your life? Why?
  • What is more worrying to you: family troubles or political troubles?




(Source: 1. https://vemqueteexplico.blogspot.com/2013/02/adjetivos-terminados-em-ed-e-ing.html, 2. http://www.grammar.cl/Notes/Adjectives_ED_ING.htm, 3. http://lanouvelleboheme.com/most-embarrassing-language-mistakes/, 4. https://englishhelponline.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/embarrassed.jpg)


Answer Key:

(1) inspired

(2) soothing

(3) worried

(4) disgusting

(5) overwhelmed

(6) shocked / disgusted

(7) worrying/shocking

(8) confusing

(9) verb

(10) adjective

(11) adjective

(12) verb